Author Archives: Admin

138

Praziquantel was developed in the laboratories for parasitological research of Bayer AG and Merck KGaA in Germany (Elberfeld and Darmstadt) in the mid 1970s. The World Health Organization includes it on its Model List of Essential Medicines.

Praziquantel is well absorbed (approximately 80%) from the gastrointestinal tract. However, due to extensive first-pass metabolism, only a relatively small amount enters systemic circulation. Praziquantel has a serum half-life of 0.8 to 1.5 hours in adults with normal renal and liver function. Metabolites have a half-life of 4 to 5 hours. In patients with significantly impaired liver function (Child Pugh classes B ll///d C), the serum half-life is increased to 3 to 8 hours. Praziquantel and its metabolites are mainly excreted renally; within 24 hours after a single oral dose, 70 to 80% is found in urine, but less than 0.1% as the unchanged drug. Praziquantel is metabolized through the cytochrome P450 pathway via CYP3A4. Agents thatinduce or inhibit CYP3A4 such as phenytoin, rifampin, and azole antifungals will affect the metabolism of praziquantel.

Praziquantel has a particularly dramatic effect on patients with schistosomiasis. Studies of those treated have shown that within six months of receiving a dose of praziquantel, up to 90% of the damage done to internal organs due to schistosomiasis infection can be reversed.

Although the mode of action is not exactly known at present, there is experimental evidence that praziquantel increases the permeability of the membranes of schistosome cells towards calcium ions. The drug thereby induces contraction of the parasites, resulting in paralysis in the contracted state. The dying parasites are dislodged from their site of action in the host organism and may enter systemic circulation or may be destroyed by host immune reaction (phagocytosis). Additional mechanisms including focal disintegrations and disturbances of oviposition (laying of eggs) are seen in other types of sensitive parasites.

Another hypothesis concerning the mechanism of action of praziquantel has been recently reported. The drug seems to interfere with adenosine uptake in cultured worms. This effect may have therapeutical relevance given that the schistosome, as the taenia and the echinococcus (other praziquantel sensitive parasites), is unable to synthesize purines such as adenosine de novo.

Bayer’s Animal Health Division website states, “Praziquantel is active against cestodes (tapeworms). Praziquantel is absorbed, metabolized in the liver and excreted in the bile. Upon entering the digestive tract from the bile, cestocidal activity is exhibited. Following exposure to praziquantel, the tapeworm loses its ability to resist digestion by the mammalian host. Because of this, whole tapeworms, including the scolices (plural of “scolex”), are very rarely passed after administration of praziquantel. In many instances only disintegrated and partially digested pieces of tapeworms will be seen in the stool. The majority of tapeworms are digested and are not found in the feces.”

Praziquantel is administered as a racemate, but only the (R)-enantiomer is biologically active; the enantiomers may be separated using a resolution of an amine obtained from praziquantel.

The majority of side effects develop due to the release of the contents of the parasites as they are killed and the consequent host immune reaction. The heavier the parasite burden, the heavier and more frequent the side effects normally are.

  • Central nervous system: Frequently occurring side effects are dizziness, headache, and malaise. Drowsiness, somnolence, fatigue, and vertigo have also been seen. Almost all patients with cerebral cysticercosis experience CNS side effects related to the cell-death of the parasites (headache, worsening of pre-existing neurological problems, seizures, arachnoiditis, and meningism). These side effects may be life-threatening and can be reduced by coadministration ofcorticosteroids. It is strongly recommended that all patients with cerebral cysticercosis are hospitalized during treatment.
  • GI Tract: Approximately 90% of all patients have abdominal pain or cramps with or without nausea and vomiting. Diarrhea may develop and may be severe with colic. Sweating, fever, and sometimes bloody stools may occur together with diarrhea.
  • Liver: Asymptomatic and transient increases of liver enzymes (AST and ALT) are noted frequently (up to 27%). No case of symptomatic liver damage has ever been seen so far.
  • Sensitivity reactions: Urticaria, rash, pruritus and eosinophilia in white blood cell counts
  • Other locations/body as a whole: Lower back pain, myalgia, arthralgia, fever, sweating, various cardiac arrhythmias, and hypotension

138

30

Num Mun Muay Cream is a popular hot cream used widely by Muay Thai fighters, sportsmen and athletes.

Num Mun Muay Cream deep-heating formula provides quick and effective treatment for your:

  • Pain and stiffness
  • sore muscles
  • muscle injuries

Num Mun Muay Cream when used prior to any exercise warm up reduces the chances of muscle ache, muscle strain, muscle pain, muscle cramp, pulled muscle and sports injury.

spd_20110412101747_b

CUCUMBER FACIAL CREAM

Ingredients: Cucumber extract,Vitamin E,Mineral oil,Silicone oil, Cetearyl alcohol,Glyceryl stearate, Triethanolamine, Methylparaben, Propyl paraben, Fragrance

Cucumber Extact and Vitamin E have antioxidation effect and gently moisturize your skin.

Direction : Using figertips massage onto thoughty cleansed skin.

About Producer :

Abhai products have been developed under the direction of the Chao Phya Abhaibhubejhr Hospital Foundation of Thailand. A well respected medical and research establishment, whose reputation for natural healthcare is enviable. Abhai are committed to a holistic approach to achieving good health. And their work with local communities, and their continued exploration of, and engagement with, nature’s supreme ability to maintain health and wellbeing, has helped push forward our understanding of herbal approaches to human physical welfare. These are first class products, that gently and naturally work with our bodies own processes to repair and enhance.

health

Welcome to Natural Health Chinese Medicine.